So, the mathematics we are having are still based on the mind of discrimination. The logic that we are still using is the logic based on the principle of identity. A can only be A and can not be B. (A=A≠B) That's our logic. That's our mathematics. Still based on the principle of identity. But the Buddha proposed another way. The way we do is to look deeply. When you look into this sheet of paper with a mind of a meditator, what do you see? You see the sheet of paper is made of non-paper elements. You can see a tree inside. You can see a forest inside. You can see the rain in the forest. You can see the sunshine on the forest. You can see the factory that produces the sheet of paper. And you see that the paper is made only of non-paper elements. And if you remove all these non-paper elements, there is no paper left. So, A is not exactly A. A is B. (A ≠ A = B) If you have not seen the tree, the sunshine, the factory, the worker, you have not seen the paper.
So, the new logic proposed by the Buddha is a kind of dialectics. A is not A. (A≠A) You have to see that. Paper is not paper. That is why it can be a paper. See? If you have not seen the non-paper elements in the paper, you have not seen the sheet of paper. A sheet of paper is made only of non-paper elements. The sheet of paper is full of the cosmos but empty of separate existence. And this is called the conventional designation paper. The object of our meditation, we should look deeply into it and so, the true nature of it. It is a formation. It doesn't have a substantial core of existence. It is full of everything else but is empty of separate self. There is no separate existence. And that is why everything is the conventional designation without real substance in it.
So, A, you call A, is made only of non-A elements, including the Buddha. The Buddha is made of non-Buddha elements. And if you have not seen it, you have not seen the Buddha. And Buddhism is made of non-Buddhism elements. And when you see that, you are free from Buddhism, you are free from the Buddha. Because you know that the Buddha is also a conventional designation. And Buddhism is also a conventional designation. That is why the Middle Way dialectics is that A is not A (A≠A). That is why it can be A (A≠A=A).
And the same thing should be applied to subatomic particles. Suppose we spoke about an electron. And according to this principle, electron is made only of non-electron elements. And if you have not seen that, you have not seen the electron. How does a scientist observe an electron? They try to find out the so-called nake-mass of an electron and try to find out what they call the self-energy, the self-energy of electron in terms of the relationship between the electron and its own electronic magnetic fields. Without that magnetic fields, electron is not an electron. So, the same thing is true with the proton and the neutron. They are not separate objects. You have to see them as the formations. The neutron is made of non-neutron elements. The proton is also made of non-proton elements. And it has relationship with everything else in the cosmos.
In the Heart Sutra, the Buddha mentioned the formula in Buddhism and quantum physics as followings.
色不異空: Form is no other than emptiness.
<That's because form is made of non-form elements, namely emptiness.>
空不異色: Emptiness is no other than form.
<That's because emptiness is made of non-emptiness elements, namely form.>
色即是空: Form is namely emptiness (empty of separate existence).
空即是色: Emptiness (empty of separate existence) is namely form.
In other words, A is made of non-A elements. So, A is no other than non-A. Namely, A is non-A.
Meanwhile, non-A is made of non-non-A elements. So, non-A is no other than non-non-A. Namely, non-A is A.
David Bohm explained more simply; "Everything is internally related to everything. Everything contains everything."
“The Heart Sutra”
(Ultimate Translation) http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00WBTLNEU
(Free Translation) http://www.amazon.com/dp/B00WBTLPUM