Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Two worlds

Duality                                 Non-duality
Two extremes                     Middle Way
Conventional truth               Ultimate truth
Phenomenal world               Noumenal world (+Phenomenal world)
External world                      Internal world
Explicate order                     Implicate order
Space and time                    Without space and time
Outside                                Inside
Eyesight                               Insight
A thing                                 Nature
Body-mind                           Consciousness
Brain                                    Subconscious
Ego (separate self)               True self (non-separate self)
Notions/Views/Ideas/Words   No notions/views/ideas/words
Thinking                                Without thinking
Illusion/Delusion                    Reality
Judgement/Criticism              No need
Lack of self-acceptance        Unconditional self-acceptance
Conditioned                           Unconditioned
Material value                        Spiritual value
Awake/Dreaming state           Deep sleep state
Separate                                Interdependent co-arising
Separation/Discrimination      Non-separation/Non-discrimination
Pairs of opposites                  Not two but not one
Notion of birth and death        No notion of birth and death
Ignorance                               Wisdom
Afflictions                              Unconditional love and compassion
Samsara                                Nirvana
Ordinary person                     Enlightened person
The Four Noble Truths          The Heart Sutra

* Interdependent co-arising is the skillful means to transcend duality and attain non-duality.

Thích Nhất Hạnh

Monday, March 30, 2015

The Heart Sutra (Ultimate translation)

Just uploaded the ultimate translation and commentary of The Heart Sutra as follows:  

The Four Noble Truths is in the realm of the conventional truth and the Heart Sutra is in the realm of the ultimate truth. And it's vital for us to understand the ultimate truth for attaining enlightenment. The source of all sufferings is separation between oneself and others. So, we need to transcend duality and throw away all notions in order to stop the separation. For that, wisdom of emptiness (interdependent co-arising) is essential. Emptiness (interdependent co-arising) means two sides of the same coin (all pairs of opposites are "not two", but "not one"). If one side arises, the other side arises at the same time. If one side is removed, the other side is also removed at the same time. Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that emptiness (interdependent co-arising) is the ancient "general theory of relativity" and "cognitive therapy".

Regarding non-duality, the following material is just for your reference. http://www.slideshare.net/compassion5151/light-and-darkness

Tulips Photo by Joel Bramley

Sunday, March 29, 2015

The formula of science and Buddhism 科学と仏教の方程式

The formula of science is "A=A≠B". In other words, A is A and is not equal to B. But the formula of Buddhism is "A≠A=A (=B)". In other words, A is made of non-A elements, so A is equal to A, B and all the rest. The formula of science is the conventional truth based on duality (notions of pairs of opposites) and the formula of Buddhism is the ultimate truth based on non-duality. If we are caught by notions, we can't see the reality. So meditation on interdependent co-arising is very helpful to transcend the duality and to free us from notions, for non-discrimination or non-separation.

科学の方程式は、「A= A≠B」です。言い換えると、AはAであって、Bではない。しかし、仏教の方程式は「A≠A= A(= B)」です。言い換えると、AはA以外の要素でできているので、AはAであるし、Bでもあるし、その他全てでもある。科学の方程式は二元性(反対の一対の概念)に基づく一般的な真理であり、仏教の方程式は非二元性に基づく究極の真理です。私たちが概念に捕捉されるなら、現実を見ることはできません。ですから、縁起の瞑想は、非差別や非分離のために、二元性を超越し概念から私たちを解放するのに非常に役立ちます。

Albert Einstein and Charlie Chaplin

Saturday, March 28, 2015





Tulips Photo by Joel Bramley

Friday, March 27, 2015




Daffodils Photo by Joel Bramley

Thursday, March 26, 2015

The Heart Sutra (Free translation)

Just uploaded the revised version of "The Heart Sutra" (Free translation) as follows: http://www.slideshare.net/compassion5151/the-heart-sutra-free-translation

I made this revised version because I mixed up "the conventional truth" and "the ultimate truth" in old versions. The Four Noble Truths is in the realm of the conventional truth and the Heart Sutra is in the realm of the ultimate truth. And it's essential for us to understand the ultimate truth for attaining enlightenment. The ultimate truth is "the wisdom of interdependence (emptiness)" which means "change (impermanence)", or "empty of separate existence or self (no self)". In other words, "change is the foundation of existence" (everything can survive because it's changing). Therefore, it's vital for us to be "non-separate existence or self" (interdependent existence or self).

Tuesday, March 24, 2015




Monday, March 23, 2015


* 概念、言葉、記述を使用
* (仏陀)
* 現実への現象論的アプローチ
* 古典的な科学
* 概念の手法
* 概念、アイデア、言葉
* 一般的な真実
* 独立した物として、誕生と死、存在と非存在、あなたと私、
* 知識(独立した物)を技術や日常生活へも適用可能
* 誕生と死、存在と非存在の概念を利用
* 「四聖諦」(条件付きの教え)
* 歴史的次元

* 概念、言葉、記述を使用不可
* 性質(仏性)
* 現実への本体論的アプローチ(本体論の分野)
* 現代科学(量子物理学の分野)
* 概念、アイデア、言葉を捨てる必要あり
* 異なる言語のようなものを使用すべき
* 究極の真理
* 存在と非存在、誕生と死の概念がない
* 息子の中に父親が見える
* 現実の本当の苦しみとは何かを見つけようとする
* 「般若心経」(無条件の教え:涅槃)
* 究極の次元


Sunset Photo by Robin Griggs Wood

Sunday, March 22, 2015




知性やエゴと本当の自分との関係は、マーラと仏陀の関係に等しいと感じます。両者は表裏一体です。両者は二つではなく、一つでもありません。 http://plumvillage.org/transcriptions/mara-and-the-buddha-embracing-our-suffering/



White Lioness Photo by Amal Rika

Saturday, March 21, 2015

Brain and Subconscious

Intellect and ego (separate self) are closely related to brain in the realm of the conventional truth (explicate order, the phenomenal), or in the historical dimension. 

True self (non-separate self, or the Absolute) is closely related to subconscious in the realm of the ultimate truth (implicate order, the noumenal), or in the ultimate dimension.

I feel the relation between intellect or ego and true self is equal to the relation between Mara and Buddha. They are two sides of the same coin. They are not two but are not one. 

It's time to say goodbye to brain. It's time to live in awareness as subconscious. http://www.slideshare.net/compassion5151/goodbye-to-brain

Non-separation of oneself from others is the key for self-transformation. http://www.slideshare.net/compassion5151/self-transformation-44490452

White Lion Cubs Photo by Tabitha Zhong

Friday, March 20, 2015

Phenomena and Noumenon

<The phenomenal>  (explicate order, phenomena)
* use concepts, words and descriptions
* a thing (Buddha)
* phenomenological approach to reality
* classical science
* the notion of methods
* notions, ideas and words
* the conventional truth
* can stick of birth and death, being and non-being, you and I, 
  time and space as a separate entity
* can apply that kind of knowledge (separate entity) into 
  technology and into your daily life also
* make use of notions of birth and death, being and non-being
* The Four Noble Truths (conditioned dharma)
* the historical dimension

<The noumenal>  (implicate order, noumenon)
* can not use concepts, words and descriptions
* nature (Buddha nature)
* ontological approach to reality (in the realm of ontology)
* modern science (in the realm of quantum physics)
* have to leave behind notions, ideas and words
* should use a kind of language that is different
* the ultimate truth
* free from the notion of being and non-being, birth and death
* can see the father in the son
* try to find out what is the real sufferings of reality
* The Heart Sutra (unconditioned dharma: nirvana)
* the ultimate dimension

The above analysis is based on Thay's dharma talk on "The Science of the Buddha" in "The Ground of Right View" as follows:

Dawn of Whitley Bay in the UK Photo by Ray Bilcliff

Thursday, March 19, 2015

The ultimate and The conventional

Listen deeply to the following Thay's Dharma talk on "The Science of the Buddha" in "The Ground of Right View" from 13:46 to 33:30. http://tnhaudio.org/tag/four-kinds-of-nutriments/page/2/

Teachers in Buddhist traditions remind you that there is a principle you have to follow when you do the work of investigations. They said you shouldn't mix up the phenomenal and the noumenal. In the phenomenal, on the side of the level of the phenomenal, you use concepts, words and descriptions that you can not use in the approach of the noumenal. And this is the Buddhist principle of the investigation. It's called the separate investigation of the phenomenal and the noumenal. The phenomenal is a thing (luxana?) and the noumenal is a nature. This (The noumenal) is in the realm of ontology. This (The noumenal) is the ontological approach to the reality. This (The phenomenal) is the phenomenological approach to the reality. And you can not mix up the two kinds of methods. This is somehow like a classical science and a modern science. The notion of methods you apply to the classical science you have to leave behind if you want to succeed in approaching in the realm of a quantum physics. If you can't leave behind that, you have no hope in order to get into the realm of quantum physics and understand. And this is written in Chinese (?). (?) means "to investigate", "to study", "to learn", "to look deeply" and (?) means "separately". This is noumenal and this is phenomenalThis is ontological and this is phenomenal. When you want to approach the reality ontologically, you have to leave behind all these notions, ideas and words that you use while you investigate the phenomenal world.

And this is very important in Buddhism because Buddhism distinguish two kinds of truth, the conventional truth and the ultimate truth. In the conventional realm of truth, you can stick of birth and death, being and non-being, you and I, time and space as a separate entity. And you can apply that kind of knowledge into technology and into your daily life also. For instance, every one of us needs a birth certificate in order to have an identification card and a passport, or you can't go anywhere. You can't say that my nature is no birth and no death, so I don't need a birth certificate. You see? So, this kind of conventional truth does help. Yeah! In the ultimate truth, we know that it's impossible for a cloud to die. The cloud can't pass from the realm of being to the realm of non-being. That is the ultimate truth. But when someone dies, we have to declare that he has died. You can not say that he can never die and he is like a cloud. So, I don't need to declare his death. You can't do that. So, in the conventional truth, we make use of notions of birth and death, being and non-being. You and I are different. Father and son are two distinct persons. You can not mix up. Although in the ultimate truth, you can see the father in the son. If you remove the father from the son, he can no longer be there. So, you have to separate. You have to practice according to the separate investigation of the phenomenal and the noumenal, the ontological and the phenomenological.

And I think something similar should be observed inside. When you leave a domain in classical science, you have to be freer of notions and concepts in order to be able to approach. Because the quantum physics has the willingness to knock at the door of ontology. They try to find out what is the real sufferings of reality. The separate investigation of the phenomenal and the noumenal. So, when you speak of God, you speak of nirvana, you speak of the ultimate, you should use a kind of language that is different. You should no longer use the notions. And the words that you use when you speak of other things like the notion of being and non-being, you can not use it in order to describe God. So, the problem, whether God is or God is not, God exists or does not exist, is no longer a problem. The ultimate is free from the notion of being and non-being, birth and death. So, if we follow that, we can save a lot of time. We can save a lot of ink. And we can save a lot of saliva also.

I think in the domain of science, many scientists make that kind of mistakes. And in Buddhism also, even teachers make that kind of mistakes. They mix up two dimensions of reality. When you speak of the Four Noble Truths, for instance, we know that the first one is ill-being. And the second is the making of ill-being. The third is the secession of ill-being. And the fourth is the path leading to the secession of ill-being. And there are Buddhist teachers who describe the third noble truth, nirvana, in terms of the ultimate. And they say among the four truths, one belongs to the ultimate and three others belong to the conventional. And such teachers don't observe the non-separate investigation of truths. There are more than one teachers who explain the Four Noble Truths like that. And if we follow the principle, the methodology we know, that is not correct. If we stay in the realm of the conventional truth, you have to say that all four of them are conventional. All of them are Sanskrit terms of Dharma, conditioned Dharma. Suffering is conditioned. Suffering is made of non-suffering elements. Suffering manifests because many conditions come together in order to help suffering manifest. And that is the second noble truth. How elements come together to produce suffering we have to look deeply. So, the first and the second noble truths we have to examine in the level of conventional truths.

And the path leading to the secession of ill-being, the path for transformation and healing, the path that can disgrace ill-being with well-being, should be seen in the realm of conventional truth. Because everything is impermanent, suffering is impermanent and the secession of suffering is impermanent also. The secession of suffering means happiness. And happiness is as impermanent as suffering. Because in the realm of conventional truth, everything is impermanent, is changing. So, you should not be right to single out the third and say that this is a non-conditioned Dharma and all the others are conditioned Dharma. You mix up the two things.

But when you read the Heart Sutra, you touch the ultimate dimension. And they speak of the Four Noble Truths in the language of the ultimate. They say there is no suffering, there is no making of suffering, there is no secession of suffering, there is no path leading to secession of suffering. That's the ultimate. So, if it is conventional, all four of them are conventional. If it is the ultimate, all of them should be ultimate. In the ultimate dimension, we say that ill-being doesn't exist as a separate entity. Without the three others, ill-being can not express itself. And that is why looking at the Four Noble Truths with the insight of interbeing, there can not be ill-being if there is no well-being. Because ill-being and well-being are related to each other. It is with the materials of ill-being that you can fabricate well-being and etc. It is with the mud that you can fabricate lotus flowers. So, both mud and the lotus are on the same level. They are all conditioned Dharma.

But if we single out the third truth and call it unconditional Dharma that is nirvana, we mix up and make confusion. That is why our Dharma teachers in Plum Village, whether they are monastics or lay, know that the third truth is linked with the first one. The first one is the presence of ill-being and the third one is the secession of the ill-being. It means the presence of well-being. Both ill-being and well-being are impermanent. They can change. That is why on this level the same happiness is impermanent. I have to continue my practice so that when happiness regenerates into something less than happiness, I can recreate happiness. You see? You can not say this is nirvana that is unconditioned. This is very important.

But the unconditioned is hidden behind. If you touch that conditioned Dharma deeply enough, you touch the unconditioned. And you don't have to look for the unconditioned elsewhere. It's like a cloud in the sky. Touching the cloud superficially, you see the cloud can be or can not be, the cloud can be born or can die. And you see the existence of the cloud or the non-existence of the cloud. you see the birth of the cloud or the dying of the cloud. So, that cloud belongs to the realm of conditioned dharma when we describe the cloud in terms of being there or not being there, or birth and death. As far as we stay in the realm of the conventional truth, it's okay, alright to use being and non-being, birth and death of a cloud. 

But when you want to go deeper, you want to investigate deeper the same cloud, you touch more deeply and you find out it's impossible for a cloud to be born or to die. The cloud is free from birth and death, from being and non-being. And the ultimate is not something separated from the conventional. You don't have to throw away the cloud in order to obtain its true nature. You just touch it more deeply by removing all notions that you have of it before and then you touch the unconditioned. So, the unconditioned, nirvana, the ultimate is not something separated. It's like a wave suffer from going up and down, is afraid of being there or not being there, of being higher or lower than other clouds (waves?). So, that kind of sufferings are due to concepts, to notions and discrimination. But once the wave recognizes she is water and then she loses all these kinds of concepts, she loses all kinds of fear, anger and jealousy. That is why going up she is happy, going down she is happy. She is free from the notions of being and non-being, beginning and ending. And she doesn't have to go out to look for water. She is water. So, the ultimate is in the conventional.

We have to follow the principle of the investigation, the separate investigation of the phenomenal (the historical dimension) and the noumenal (the ultimate dimension). But the ultimate dimension is inside of the historical dimension.

Thích Nhất Hạnh

Tuesday, March 17, 2015

Intransitive actions 自動詞の行動

Walking is an intransitive action which doesn't require an object like breathing. Concentrating on intransitive actions makes it easier for us to stop thinking. That's why we can easily return to true self (non-separate self) through mindful walking and breathing. The subject of walking and breathing is true self who is the root cause of all happiness. On the other hand, the subject of thinking is ego (separate self) who is the root cause of all sufferings. Thinking requires an object which is always an illusion through mental projection created by the subject, namely ego.


The North American Grizzly Bear Cub Photo by Zita Rodrigues

Monday, March 16, 2015

大悲(Great Compassion, mahakaruna)

ティク・ナット・ハンは以下の通り、大悲(Great Compassion, mahakaruna)の本質について述べました。


St. Mary's Lighthouse in Whitley Bay, England Photo by Ray Bilcliff

Sunday, March 15, 2015




Otley ,Yorkshire UK Photo by Baldur McQueen

Compassion と Karuna の違い


「真の愛の第二の要素は、カルーナ(苦しみを和らげ変容し、悲しみを軽減する意図及び能力)です。カルーナは通常「慈悲」 (Compassion) と翻訳されていますが、それは正確には正しくありません。「慈悲」は、com(一緒に)とpassion(苦しむ)で構成されています。しかし、他人から苦しみを取り除くのに、自分が苦しむ必要はありません。例えば、医者は自分が同じ病気を経験することなく、患者の苦しみを和らげることができます。もし、私たちがあまりにも苦しむと、自分が壊れてしまい助けられなくなるかもしれません。これから先、より適切な言葉を見つけるまでは、「慈悲」 (Compassion) をカルーナの訳として使いましょう。


Senja island, Norway Photo by Anders Hanssen

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Great Compassion (mahakaruna)

Thay mentioned the true nature of Great Compassion, mahakaruna as follows:

"How can I put into words the true nature of Great Compassion, mahakaruna? When we begin to see that black mud and white snow are neither ugly nor beautiful, when we can see them without discrimination or duality, then we begin to grasp Great Compassion. In the eyes of Great Compassion, there is neither left nor right, friend nor enemy, close nor far. Don't think that Great Compassion is lifeless. The energy of Great Compassion is radiant and wondrous. In the eyes of Great Compassion, there is no separation between subject and object, no separate self. Nothing that can disturb Great Compassion.
Remembering me, you will continue on your path. You will have a refuge that no one can take from you. No one will be able to disturb your faith, because that faith does not rely on anything in the phenomenal world. Faith and love are one and can only emerge when you penetrate deeply the empty nature of the phenomenal world, when you can see that you are in everything and everything is in you."

I am convinced now that we can remove suffering from another person without experiencing the same suffering if we have Great Compassion, or Unconditional Love.

Female hummingbird in Ecuador Photo by Raymond Barlow

Friday, March 13, 2015

Difference between Compassion and Karuna

The following is the exerpt from "Dharma Talk: The Four Immeasurable Minds By Thich Nhat Hanh".

"The second aspect of true love is karuna, the intention and capacity to relieve and transform suffering and lighten sorrows. Karuna is usually translated as “compassion,” but that is not exactly correct. “Compassion” is composed of com (“together with”) and passion (“to suffer”). But we do not need to suffer to remove suffering from another person. Doctors, for instance, can relieve their patients’ suffering without experiencing the same disease in themselves. If we suffer too much, we may be crushed and unable to help. Still, until we find a better word, let us use “compassion” to translate karuna.
When I was a novice, I could not understand why, if the world is filled with suffering, the Buddha has such a beautiful smile. Why isn’t he disturbed by all the suffering? Later I discovered that the Buddha had enough understanding, calmness, and strength. That is why the suffering does not overwhelm him. He is able to smile to suffering because he knows how to take care of it and to help transform it. We need to be aware of the suffering, but retain our clarity, calmness, and strength so we can help transform the situation. The ocean of tears cannot drown us if karuna is there. That is why the Buddha’s smile is possible."

I feel that enough understanding, calmness and strength the Buddha had mean enlightenment. Buddha must have been able to transform all sufferings instantly without fail.

Thursday, March 12, 2015


以下は、ティク・ナット・ハンの「Being Peace(平和になる)」という著書からの抜粋です。

非二元性は、「二つでないこと」を意味しますが、「一つでないこと」 も意味します。ですから、「一つ」と言わずに「非二元」と言うのです。その理由は、もし一つがあるなら、二つがあるからです。二つを回避したければ、一つもまた回避する必要があるのです。



1. 身念処:体の中の体を瞑想
2. 受念処:感情の中の感情を瞑想
3. 心念処:心(心行、意識)の中の心を瞑想
4. 想念処:知覚(心の対象)の中の知覚を瞑想



Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Non-duality (two sides of the same coin) & Four Foundations of Mindfulness

The following is the excerpt from Thích Nhất Hạnh's book titled "Being Peace". 

Nonduality means "not two," but "not two" also means "not one." That is why we say "nondual" instead of "one." Because if there is one, there are two. If you want to avoid two, you have to avoid one also. 

In the Satipatthana Sutta, the basic manual on meditation from the time of the Buddha, it is recorded, "The practitioner will have to contemplate body in the body, feelings in the feelings, mind in the mind, objects of mind in the objects of mind." The words are clear. The repetition, "body in the body," is not just to underline the importance of it. Contemplating body in the body means that you do not stand outside of something to contemplate it. You must be one with it, with no distinction between the contemplator and the contemplated. Contemplating body in the body means that you should not look on your body as the object of your contemplation. You have to be one with it. The message is clear. "Nonduality" is the key word for Buddhist meditation. 

In short, we have to be one with the contemplated (to attain insight), but we should not stand outside of the contemplated (to observe by eyes).

* Satipatthana (The four foundations of mindfulness)
1. Body (Kāyā)
2. Feelings (Vedanā)
3. Mind (Cittā): (51 mental formations)
4. Objects of Mind (Dhammā): (‘nature’ for the scientist) 

* Mara and the Buddha (The nature of non-duality)

Thích Nhất Hạnh

Tuesday, March 10, 2015

Afflictions or Bliss? 煩悩か至福か?

We suffer from afflictions because ego (separate self) thinks without touching the wonders of life.

We can be happy in peace because true self (non-separate self) can touch the wonders of life without thinking.

Everything depends on who we are, whether ego or true self.

Self-transformation through self-inquiry is the key!







Třapatka a poupě Photo by Anna Valova

Sunday, March 8, 2015




Power of nature Photo by Rando TrenteQuatre

Friday, March 6, 2015

Karma 業

Watch the following Thay's video to understand Karma well. 

<Key phrases>

1) From the point of view of time, cause and effects are not two different entities. One is the continuation of the other. It is a wonderful collaboration on the basis of no-self. There is only a continuation.

2) From the point of view of space, it is the same. You are not strictly individual. You are partly collective. We have a notion of individual karma and collective karma. And any karma, whether it is collective or individual, affects the whole. In the collective, there is an individual. In the individual, there is a collective. 

3) Any karma affect all of us. Whatever good we are doing here is helping the world. So, we have to be confident that karma is not lost. Our action, or karma is neither different nor the same.

カルマ(業:行動)をよく理解するために、次のThayのビデオをご覧ください。 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B7I4jP9s8bQ


1) 時間の観点から、原因と結果は2つの異なる実体ではありません。一方は他方の続きです。それは無自性(独立した自己の不在)基づく素晴らしいコラボレーションです。継続のみしかありません。

2) 空間の観点からも、同じです。あなたは厳密には個人ではありません。あなたは部分的に集合的なのです。私たちは、個人のカルマと集合的カルマの概念を持っています。そして、それが集合的であろう個人的であろうが、いかなるカルマであろうとも、全体に影響を及ます。集合の中に個があります。個の中に集合があります。

3) いかなるカルマであろうとも私たち全員に影響を及ぼします。私たちがここでしている良いことは何でも世界を助けています。ですから、私たちはカルマが失われないことに自信を待つ必要があります。私たちの行動、即ちカルマは異なりもせず、同じでもありません。

Grand Canyon, the Kaibab Forest Photo by Davis Devol